Kentuckians who came to homestead first populated the town of Argonne along the Pine River with the Native Americans. The present town of Argonne was first named VanZile, after Abraham VanZile who plotted all the land in the area. It was later named North Crandon but that caused too much confusion of the mail so the community decided on a name change. It briefly considered Champion, after a local merchant but that didn't catch on. Argonne was chosen in 1921 following the patriotic fervor that followed World War 1. The namesake was the Battle of Argonne in eastern France.

In 1887 the Soo Line came into the community and a depot was built. There was one large hotel which the Hords owned. There was no school right in the community, it was north on Hwy 32. In 1890 there were eight students. In 1894 the first two-story school was built in the town which served the community until 1991.

Argonne was originally located 1.5 miles east of its present location on a steep grade. The town was later moved because it was impossible for the train to start up with a load of lumber. As more people came north to work in the lumber camps, the town grew until it contained two large hotels, two large grocery stores, one clothing store, a meat market, a post office, a printing shop, two newspapers (The Forest Leaves and Northern Citizens), a large livery stable, a bank, seven saloons, and two doctors, besides other small businesses. The Farmers& Merchants State Bank was said to be the first bank in Wisconsin.

A stagecoach ride between Crandon and Argonne took three to four hours on the rough corduroy roads. The Forest County Courthouse was proposed for downtown Argonne but was defeated and built in Crandon because the township of Three Lakes, which would have voted for the proposal, was shifted to Oneida County.

Today, Argonne still prides itself on its rich history and still boasts its small post office. The railroad tracks exist to this day. Argonne Days, an event commemoration Argonne's past is held each summer in August.

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